Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions. Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable cultural traditions.
The story of the Jewish people begins with G‑d creating the world in six days and resting on the seventh. Then, He chose Abraham and his children to become His special nation who would dwell in a special homeland (Israel).After a 210-year stint of slavery in Egypt, G‑d took His people to Mount Sinai, where he made a covenant with them and gave them instructions for life. After 40 years of wandering, the Israelites entered the Promised Land. In time, they built a Holy Temple (Beit Hamikdash) in Jerusalem, where they could offer sacrifices and connect to G‑d.
The Holy Temple was eventually destroyed by Roman invaders, and the Jewish people went into exile and were scattered all over the world (galut).But the story is not over yet. We believe that the time will come when we will once again be gathered in our homeland with a rebuilt Temple in a world that will be peaceful, G‑dly and perfect.
There are three names for the descendants of Abraham:
The Torah refers to Abraham as a Hebrew (read what that means here), and that name is most commonly associated with the language of his descendants.
His grandson, Jacob, was given a second name of Israel, and that name has become closely associated with Israelite homeland (which you can read more about here).
Of Jacob’s 12 sons, Judah had the role of leadership. At one point, he was the dominant tribe among those living in Israel (read what happened to the others here), and the entire nation became known as Jews, and their creed, Judaism.
The Torah - Sacred Texts of Judaism
Moses—the leader who led the Jews out of Egypt and to whom G‑d communicated in the presence of the people at Mount Sinai—recorded the story of creation and the history of Abraham’s family up until his time in what became known as the Torah, or the Five Books of Moses. In addition, the Torah also contains G‑d’s instructions for personal and communal life.
Prophets and Writings: In addition to the Torah, there are 19 other books that are sacred to the Jewish people. They are grouped into Neviim and Ketuvim, (Prophets and Writings). They contain the history of the Jewish people for several hundred years from after Moses’ death, as well as prophetic communications from great leaders of the Jewish people.
Oral Torah: Alongside the Divine traditions that Moses recorded in the Torah, there were many details and commandments from G‑d that were communicated and preserved orally. As time went on, the sages of each generation discussed the Torah and elaborated on its principles. These discussions were eventually written down, becoming the Mishnah, Talmud and Midrash.
In the fall there are the high holidays: Rosh Hashanah (the New Year), which is celebrated with prayers, hearing the blasts of the shofar (ram’s horn) and feasts, which include the traditional dish of apples dipped in honey; Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), when Jews gather to pray and don’t eat or drink for 25 hours; and Sukkot, celebrated by dwelling in special huts called sukkahs, and taking the four kinds.
These are followed by Chanukah, in the winter, which is celebrated with lighting a candelabra called a menorah (or chanukiah) for eight consecutive nights, and Purim, which is a joyful holiday toward the end of winter.
In the spring, Jews celebrate Pesach (or Passover), during which we get rid of all leaven (dough that has risen). Instead, matzah (a flat cracker-like food) is eaten. This is followed by Shavuot, which marks the day of the Divine revelation at Sinai, when we received the Torah.
Jesus Christ was born as a Jew. His life was a transition from Judaism to what He would He leave behind, His church (Matthew 16:18 / Romans 16:16).
1. Place of worship
Synagogues, Western Wall of the Temple in Jerusalem
2. Place of origin,
Prayers 3 times daily, with a fourth prayer added on Shabbat and holidays. Shacarit prayer in the morning, Mincha in the afternoon, Arvit at night; Musaf is an extra Shabbat service.
4. Life after death
World to come, Reincarnation (some groups); unifying with God, there are different opinions and beliefs
5. Means of Salvation
Through belief in God and Mitzvot (good deeds).
6. Belief of God
. One God (monotheism), often called HaShem—Hebrew for 'The Name', or Adonai— 'The Lord'. God is the one True Creator. God has always existed, none existed before him and will exist forever. He transcends life and death.
7. Use of statues and pictures
Forbidden to use in religion
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses
Ancient times: Hereditary privileged priest class--Kohen and Levi. Present day: Religious functionaries like Rabbis, Cantors, Scribes, Mohels.
10. Goal of religion
To celebrate LIFE! To fulfill the Covenant with God. Do good deeds. Help repair the world. Love God with all your heart. Strong social justice ethic.
11. Human Nature
You must choose good from bad. You are responsible for your actions, not thoughts.
13. Original Language(s)
Hebrew. Every word has a 3 letter root word. Yiddish: part Hebrew, part German/East European language. Sephardic: part Hebrew, part Arabic language.
1. Church building, , personal dwellings, outside, tent, etc.(Acts 2:42)
2. Jerusalem The Christian holiday of Pentecost, which is celebrated the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 2:1–31).
3.. Prayer, worship in church of Christ, reading of the Bible, acts of charity, weekly communion. Preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ , Give as we prosper to the Lord. I Corinthians 2:8-9. II Corinthians 16:1-2
4. Eternity in Heaven or Hell, depending on whether you obeyed the gospel of Jesus Christ.
Mathew 25: 46
5.Through Christ's Passion, Death, and Resurrection.
I Corinthians 15:1-4)
6. One God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The godhead
7. Christ built His church (Matthew 1816) The churches of Christ ....Romans 16:16 / Acts 20:28
8. Jesus Christ is the ONLY founder of the church
I Corinthians 3:11-15
9: Gospel preachers, Elders, Deacons and Christians going out into the world to preach the gospel
Romans 1:16; I Corinthians 9: 14-23
10. To love God and obey his commandments while creating a relationship with Jesus Christ and spreading the Gospel so that others may also be saved. Matthew 28:18-20; John 8:31-32
11. Humans are born into the world innocent and over time they are corrupted by sin. No baby is ever born "in sin". .(for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might) Romans 9:11
12. Followers or Disciples of Jesus Christ (Christians). Never known as Catholics, Baptist, Mormons, Methodist, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventist, etc.
13. . Aramaic, Greek, and Latin.